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Posts from the ‘Editor’s Picks’ Category

Ethical Nursing Care

The current ANS featured article is titled “A Critical Analysis of the American Nurses Association Position Statement on Workplace Violence: Ethical Implications” authored by Darcy Copeland, PhD, RN. Please visit the ANS website over the coming 2 weeks to download this thought-provoking article at no cost. Dr. Darcy provided this message reflecting on this work:

Darcy Copeland

“I have been researching workplace violence in nursing for several years.  Increasingly, I hear nurses in many settings describe violence directed towards nurses in very polarized ways.  For example, some nurses contend that violence is an inherent risk associated with our work while others contend that violence ought not be part of our jobs.  Amidst these polarized views are workplace policies reinforcing a zero tolerance to violence stance.  The American Nurses Association adopted such a stance in their position statement on workplace violence.  Such a position, however, is not in alignment with our ethical framework. Zero tolerance policies are absolutely appropriate with respect to family/visitor or employee violence.  They are not appropriate in the context of patients, however. Zero tolerance policies have a punitive and moralist history; they are also ineffective at actually preventing violence.  Adherence to zero tolerance policies in the context of patient violence has the potential to negatively impact the RN-patient relationship, erode public trust, and criminalize illness behavior.  After a critical analysis of the ANA’s position statement it is recommended that the ANA draft separate position statements. One addressing patient violence and a separate document addressing employee and visitor/family violence.  Nurses have very different duties, obligations and power in RN-patient relationships than in relationships with coworkers and relationships with families/visitors.  Those duties, obligations and power dynamics ought to inform our response to patient violence.”  

Normalization of Deviance

The current ANS featured article is titled “Normalization of Deviance Concept Analysis” authored by M. Imelda Wright, PhD, RN, CNOR; Barbara Polivka, PhD, RN, FAAN;Jan Odom- Forren, PhD, RN, CPAN, FASPAN, FAAN and Becky J. Christian, PhD, RN, FAAN. The article is available at no cost while it is featured on the ANS website. Dr. Wright provided this video abstract of the article.

Secondary Traumatic Stress in Nursing

The current featured ANS article is titled “Secondary Traumatic Stress in Nursing: A Walker and Avant Concept Analysis,” authored by Marni B. Kellogg, PhD, RN, CPN, CNE, and it is available for download at no cost while it is featured. Here is a description of her work from Dr. Kellogg:

My primary research interest is secondary traumatic stress in nursing. As a pediatric nurse, my interest came about as I wondered if stress in nursing was different or more intense for pediatric nurses than nurses in other settings. As time has gone on, particularly with the pandemic, my research program has expanded to include stress and trauma in all nursing settings.

“Secondary Traumatic Stress in Nursing: A Walker and Avant Concept Analysis” resulted from my work overtime and was written to address a gap in the literature. Secondary traumatic stress is the stress a nurse faces when something upsetting happens to their patient. I propose a new definition in the article which explains what secondary traumatic stress is and what it is not. The phenomenon is frequently confused with the terms burnout, compassion fatigue, and vicarious traumatization; they are not all synonymous. Additionally, secondary traumatic stress has many of the same symptoms as Acute Stress Disorder and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder; therefore, nurses must be aware of this phenomenon to protect their mental health. A purer meaning of secondary traumatic stress in nurses is needed to distinguish it from each of the closely related terms. Clarity in the definition of secondary traumatic stress allows for the appropriate measurement and advancement of research related to its occurrence, treatment, and prevention in nursing.

It is vital to address traumatic stress in nurses as we emerge from the COVID-19 pandemic. Over the last year, I have completed some research with colleagues in psychology; nurses are suffering from traumatic stress. I am currently working with my team to explore the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on nurses in the United States. We plan to develop appropriate interventions to help nurses. I worry about experienced nurses leaving their specialties or the profession because of the stress from the pandemic. Nurse educators must be aware of traumatic stress and work to build strong, resilient nurses who are mindful of the importance of self-care and mental health. Healthy nurses are effective nurses and will benefit our community.

I look forward to your feedback. Please take good care.

End-of-Life Care Terminology

Zahra Rahemi

Our current featured article is titled “End-of-Life Care Terminology: A Scoping Review” authored by Zahra Rahemi, PhD, RN andTracy Fasolino, PhD, FNP-BC, ACHPN. The article is available at no cost while it is featured, and we welcome your comments in response! Here is a message that Dr. Rahemi provided about their work:

End of life care research mostly focuses on end-of-life care options, cost of care, and advance care planning. However, the type of language and terminology that is used in end-of-life care literature and advance care planning forms is overlooked. The terminology used regarding end-of-life care options can convey positive, negative, or neutral meanings. For example, the term “intensive care” might convey a negative connotation compared to “comfort care”. Using these two terms in advance care planning forms and literature may influence individuals’ understanding and decisions about preferred end-of-life care options. Terminology and language are important in caring and nursing sciences, especially in the field of end-of-life care wherein the importance of culture and diversity is emphasized. The focus of this scoping review is to recommend healthcare professional, researchers, and policy makers to use neutral connotative language and terms when designing end-of-life care or advance care planning methods.

Decolonizing the Language of Nursing

Daniel Suárez-Baquero

The current featured ANS article is titled “Critical Analysis of the Nursing Metaparadigm in Spanish-Speaking Countries Is the Nursing Metaparadigm Universal?” by Daniel F. M. Suárez-Baquero, MSN, RN;and Lorraine Olszewski Walker, EdD, MPH, RN. This article is available to download at no cost while it is featured, and we welcome your comments and questions here. Here is author Suárez-Baquero’s message for ANS readers about this work:


This paper presents a critical analysis about the dominance of the English language as tool for colonization. We start from the use of the nursing metaparadigm – as the central component of Nursing knowledge – to elucidate the conceptual differences in Nursing foundations that exist due to social and linguistic differences.

For those nurses who learn Nursing in Spanish, the concept of Cuidado – amalgamation of the nuances of Care and Caring – is the cornerstone of the core disciplinary Nursing knowledge. However, this foundational perspective, rooted in most of the Nursing spoken in Romance languages, has been historically underrecognized. Several academic discussions about Nursing concepts and theories that I had with well-known nursing theorists during my doctoral studies brought up an overlooked issue: Meanings differences in the nuances and concepts from languages other than English.

Importantly, this issue has limited the expansion of disciplinary nursing knowledge. Therefore, in several instances, Nursing knowledge turns into a dogmatic believe that cannot be discussed; so that we, scholars who discuss the universality of Nursing knowledge, are seen as heretics in a seemingly homogenous and hegemonic vision of nursing.

This paper is an invitation to discuss, it is an awareness of the multiculturality that must be addressed for the growth of Nursing as a Science; it is a call to the nurses of color around the world, to let them know that the time has come to speak up and share our vision of Nursing. Nonetheless, the decolonization of disciplinary Nursing knowledge cannot be done without the support by the nursing community that dictates “what [Nursing] is, and what it is not.”



Este artículo presenta un análisis crítico acerca del dominio de la lengua inglesa como herramienta de colonización. Partimos del uso del metaparadigma de Enfermería – como el componente central del conocimiento enfermero – para elucidar las diferencias conceptuales en los fundamentos de la Enfermería que existen debido a las diferencias sociales y lingüísticas.

Para aquellas enfermeras y enfermeros que aprenden Enfermería en español, el concepto de Cuidado – amalgama del acto de enfermería y el acto de cuidar con amor o cariño – es la piedra angular del conocimiento central de la Enfermería. Sin embargo, esta perspectiva fundacional, arraigada en la mayor parte de la Enfermería hablada en lenguas romances, ha sido históricamente poco reconocida. Varias discusiones académicas sobre conceptos y teorías de enfermería que mantuve con conocidas teóricas de la enfermería durante mis estudios de doctorado sacaron a relucir una cuestión que se había pasado por alto: Las diferencias de significado en los matices y conceptos de otros idiomas distintos al inglés.

Es importante destacar que este problema ha limitado la expansión del conocimiento disciplinar de la Enfermería. Por lo tanto, en varios casos, el conocimiento de Enfermería se convierte en una creencia dogmática que no puede ser discutida; de modo que nosotros, los académicos que discutimos la universalidad del conocimiento enfermero, somos vistos como herejes en una visión aparentemente homogénea y hegemónica de la enfermería

Este artículo es una invitación a la discusión, es una toma de conciencia de la multiculturalidad que debe ser abordada para el crecimiento de la Enfermería como ciencia; es un llamado a las enfermeras y enfermeros de color de todo el mundo, para hacerles saber que ha llegado el momento de hablar y compartir nuestra visión de la Enfermería. Sin embargo, la descolonización del conocimiento disciplinar de Enfermería no puede hacerse sin el apoyo de la comunidad enfermera que dicta “qué es, y qué no es [Enfermería] “.


Database Integrity

The first ANS featured article in the newly released Volume 44:2 is titled “Integrity of Databases for Literature Searches in Nursing Avoiding Predatory Journals” authored by Marilyn H. Oermann, PhD, RN, ANEF, FAAN; Jordan Wrigley, MA, MSLS; Leslie H. Nicoll, PhD, MBA, RN, FAAN; Leila S. Ledbetter, MLIS, AHIP; Heather Carter-Templeton, PhD, RN-BC, FAAN; and Alison H. Edie, DNP, APRN, FNP-BC. The article is published open access, which means it is available at no cost from the date of publication going forward. Here is an informative explanation of this article by co-author and librarian Jordan Wrigley – followed by the transcript of her video.

Jordan’s narrative for the ANS Blog

Librarians and information professionals are valuable collaborators in data-based research where intimate understanding of the “behind the scenes” aspects of digital systems and human-information interaction are needed. This may include bibliometrics, metadata, meta-analyses, text mining, and content analysis among others. Librarians are also experts in understanding information-seeking behaviors and often facilitate research literacies including efficient literature searching and evaluation.

This project combined several of these aspects in the context of nursing publication. The goal of this project was to identify to what extent articles originating from potentially predatory and low-quality journals were penetrating databases commonly searched by nursing scholars and students. To achieve this, novel data collection strategies were required to create an original dataset. This included use of unique searching syntax across multiple databases and triangulation with authoritative sources to confirm data validation.

To create the dataset that would be the basis of this manuscript, I created a search algorithm based on journal metadata, such as International Standard Serial Number or ISSN, in one database. Then I translated it to the syntax of other databases. However, because low-quality journals do not consistently participate in processes such as ISSN registration, this dataset also required merging ISSN data with other metadata including journal titles, dates of publication, and publisher. Automated digital processes in databases are also imperfect, sometimes allowing low-quality articles to slip in through non-typical means such as being referenced in valid studies. This also needed to be accounted for in the dataset. The final dataset for this article allowed the team to make informed recommendations for nursing teaching faculty when facilitating research literacies as well as clinicians and researchers when considering where to search for literature.

Data- and digitally-intensive research is often more nuanced and complicated than it first seems. There is an endless amount of data to be used to inform research and teaching practices in nursing as well as other fields. Librarians and information professionals have intimate knowledge of the “behind the scenes” of data and human-information interaction. Please consider engaging a librarian or information professional as a collaborator in a research project to identify the potential unexplored areas of data-based research. Thank you for watching or listening to this video and, to learn more about our team’s findings based on this dataset, have a read of our “Integrity of Databases for Literature Searches in Nursing: Avoiding Predatory Journals” in Advances in Nursing Science.

Theory Development Process of Situation-Specific Theories

The current ANS featured article is titled “Theory Development Process of Situation-Specific Theories” authored by Eun-Ok Im, PhD, MPH, RN, CNS, FAAN. In this article, Dr. Im described the development processes used in fifteen situation-specific theories published in refereed journals. This article is available at no cost whiled it is featured, and we encourage you to take advantage of its availability! Dr. Im shared her reflections about her work in this message:

Since my first article on situation-specific theories was published in Advances in Nursing Science in 1999, my thoughts on situation specific theories have grown. I have started this year with an unusual excitement because of the upcoming first book on situation-specific theories from Springer Nature that I have worked on with Dr. Afaf Meleis. The book is a collection of the works by many theorists who gave their thoughts on and have developed and used their own situation-specific theories. On this blog, I am including a picture of little red fruits on a tree that I found in Atlanta, GA this winter (American Holly tree?) in order to illustrate my feelings about all the theoretical works related to situation specific theories that we have done. A collection of our little pretty fruits that we produced despite all the challenges!!!

While working on the first book on situation specific theories, I became to wonder what theoretical development process had been used in the actual development of situation-specific theories. During the same time period, I was invited to several international conferences/workshops/seminars related to theory development, and many of them asked me to give presentations on theory development process of situation-specific theories. Also, over the past several years, I have been asked by PhD students on how they could develop their own situation specific theories through their PhD dissertation works.  When I published the article on the integrative approach to situation-specific theories in 2005, I thought I gave clear guidance for theory development process of situation specific theories. However, many junior and senior scholars were wondering how situation-specific theories had been actually developed during the past two decades.  Because of these inquiries by many nursing scholars and PhD students, this paper was initiated.

While working on the paper, I was very glad to find that I was right about the theory development process of situation specific theories that I proposed in 2005.  For instance, all the situation-specific theories that were reviewed were developed through various combinations of induction and deduction using unique theory development strategies. The situation-specific theories were developed using multiple sources of theorizing (including multiple theories and multiple research studies) in various, but no homogenous steps.  I thought these findings were reasonable and natural considering the high specificity and diversity that situation-specific theories are supposed to provide and respect. 

I also had an interesting finding that situation-specific theories were developed from all types of theories including grand theories, middle-range theories, and situation-specific theories.  Considering the lowest level of abstraction in situation-specific theories, the derivation of situation-specific theories from grand theories and middle-range theories was recommended by many scholars, but situation-specific theories were actually developed based on all types of theories/theoretical works. Considering the characteristics of situation-specific theories (e.g., respecting diversity and contextuality, direct linkages to research and practice), it would be understandable to see the derivation of situation-specific theories from all types of theories and theoretical works.

Based on the expected and unexpected findings on theory development process of situation-specific theories, I made several suggestions for future theoretical development of situation-specific theories in this paper.  Especially, I thought it would be essential and important for future theorists to be creative and innovative in their theoretical efforts to develop situation-specific theories. All situation-specific theories were developed in their own unique ways that would fit with the specific populations and particular nursing situations that they aimed to describe, explain and predict. Without openness to new and creative methods, it would be difficult for theorists to develop situation-specific theories that could exactly fit with their unique populations and nursing situations.  

Especially when considering all the evolutions and revolutions that nursing discipline might need to go through with new changes in nursing environments (e.g., COVID19 pandemic), the openness would be a key to success in our future theoretical journeys. Indeed, with the start of COVID19, health care systems went through drastic changes including the rapid adoption of telemedicine and telehealth. With the changes, nursing situations became to involve telenursing procedures in many aspects of practice, and nurses have been on the frontline of health systems to take care of COVID19 patients through both in-person and non-in-person encounters. Are we ready to provide theoretical lenses that could support all these changes in nursing practice and care?  What if robots began to replace some components of nursing care? Maybe, these would not be necessary worries and concerns at this moment, but we never expected the COVID19 as well. 

Again, many thanks to Dr. Chinn to provide me with this great opportunity to dialogue with my respected colleagues; I missed our dialogues during this pandemic while staying at my little place. Hope this blog could initiate some fruitful discussion on situation-specific theories.  Also, to conclude this blog, I want to mention that this is the year of Golden Cow, White Ox, or Metal Bull in Asian culture, which will bring good fortune to all of us.  With the new good luck, I hope the COVID19 pandemic would disappear and we could get together soon.  

Best wishes for all of us.

Eun-Ok Im

Discrimination-fueled mistrust of hospice care

The current ANS featured article is titled “Mistrust Reported by US Mexicans With Cancer at End of Life and Hospice Enrollment” authored by Margaret L. Rising, PhD, JD, RN; Dena Hassouneh, PhD, RN, FAAN; Patricia Berry, PhD, CNP, GNP-BC, ACHPN, FPCN, FAAN; and Kristin Lutz, PhD, RN. The article is available to download at no cost while it is featured! Here is the abstract giving a summary of the outcome of the grounded theory approach used in this work:

Margaret L. Rising

Hospice research with Hispanics mostly focuses on cultural barriers. Mindful of social justice
and structural violence, we used critical grounded theory in a postcolonial theory framework
to develop a grounded theory of hospice decision making in US Mexicans with terminal cancer. Findings suggest that hospice avoidance is predicted by mistrust, rather than culture,
whereas hospice enrollers felt a sense of belonging. Cultural accommodation may do little
to mitigate hospice avoidance rooted in discrimination-fueled mistrust. Future research with
nondominant populations should employ research designs mitigating Eurocentric biases. Policy makers should consider concurrent therapy for nondominant populations with low trust
in the health care system (p. E14)

Rising, M. L., Hassouneh, D., Berry, P., & Lutz, K. (2021). Mistrust Reported by US Mexicans With Cancer at End of Life and Hospice Enrollment. ANS. Advances in Nursing Science, 44(1), E14–E31.

Conceptual Framework of Self-Advocacy

The current ANS featured article is titled “A Conceptual Framework of Self-advocacy in Women With Cancer” authored by Teresa H. Thomas, PhD, RN; Heidi S. Donovan, PhD, RN; Margaret Q. Rosenzweig, PhD, CRNP-C, AOCNP, FAAN; Catherine M. Bender, PhD, RN, FAAN; and Yael Schenker, MD, MAS, FAAHPM. In this article the authors discuss new insights about the process of self-advocacy. Here is a message from Dr. Thomas about this work:

Teresa Thomas

The past two decades have seen increasing attention put on “patient-centered care.” Healthcare systems and providers strive to put the patient at the forefront of their services. But what about the patient? What are we asking patients to do when we attempt to be patient-centered? How are we asking them to do so? And importantly, are all patients equally able to engage in patient-centered care?

Our team’s research in patient self-advocacy strives to answer these questions in the context of women with cancer. What happens when a woman with cancer encounters a challenging situation?  How does she assert her values and priorities to ensure her needs are met? This article presents our conceptual framework of self-advocacy among women with cancer.

Through our work with women with cancer, we know that not all individuals can speak up for themselves. Individuals quickly learn that if they don’t assert themselves, their care will at best not meet with needs and at worst be mismanaged and lead to their own poor health:

    • Individuals get lost in the healthcare system because they don’t know how to question their providers or seek clarification about their health.
    • Individuals hesitate to share the side-effects of treatment with their social circles because they don’t want to be considered a burden.
    • Individuals neglect their needs for the sake of not being perceived as rude or questioning.

Two observations drive this work. First, we noticed that research in patient empowerment and self-management focused on supporting patients in performing the tasks of managing their illness. While critical, we also recognize that individuals need support in doing more than just the “tasks” of being a patient. We want to create a language and framework that recognize the individual holistically and point to ways in which they can use their strengths to address their health concerns.

Second, we noticed a lack of patient-driven solutions to addressing disparities and inequities in outcomes. While equipping patients with self-advocacy skills cannot overcome the intertwined systems that perpetuate health inequities, there are ways in which patients can actively assert themselves to address challenges in their healthcare and social support networks.

We encourage others – by engaging in our article – to explore the concepts of self-advocacy, critique and refine this framework, and ultimately develop evidence-based ways to support individuals in achieving the goals of patient-centered care.

Theory of Suicide

The current featured ANS article is titled “The Three-Step Theory of Suicide: Analysis and Evaluation” authored by Avery M. Anderson, BA, BSN, RN and Mary Beth Happ, PhD, RN, FGSA, FAAN. This article is available for download at not cost while it is featured. Watch this informative 3-minute video of Mr. Anderson discussing this work!

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