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Posts tagged ‘grounded theory’

Double-duty care-giving: Nurses’ Unpaid Family Work


The authors of the current ANS featured article examine the phenomenon of nurses’ unpaid family work – a growing trend in the face of inadequate health care resources.  In other professions, unpaid professional services are considered “pro bono”  professional service to the community.  But for nurses, their unpaid work in families is invisible and unrecognized, and as the authors indicate, this unpaid work has implications for nurses’ paid work as well.   The article, titled “Professionalizing Familial Care: Examining Nurses’ Unpaid Family Care Work” by Oona St-Amant, MScN, RN; Catherine Ward-Griffin, PhD, RN; Judith Belle Brown, PhD; Anne Martin-Matthews, PhD; Nisha Sutherland, MScN, RN; Janice Keefe, PhD; and Michael S. Kerr, PhD is a report of a grounded theory study based on interviews with 32 nurses over a 6 to 12 month period.  The lead author, Oona St-Amant shared this background about their work:

As co-authors, we are delighted that our work has been selected to be featured in this current issue of ANS. Our article entitled “Professionalizing Familial Care: Examining Nurses’ Unpaid Family Care Work” builds on a body of work which st-amant250investigates the experience of double duty caregiving (DDC), that is, the provision of care to an older relative by a health care professional. At the helm of this work is Dr. Catherine Ward-Griffin who has built a program of research on the negotiation of care boundaries between and among health care providers, older adults and family caregivers. Several of the co-authors such as Drs. Brown, Keefe, Martin-Matthews and Kerr have been actively involved in several studies in developing this work.

As lead author, I have been extremely fortunate to complete my doctoral studies under the supervision of Dr. Ward-Griffin and commence a program of research centered on various forms of unpaid care work, including family caregiving, double duty caregiving and international volunteer health work in a variety of contexts. In this article, we shed light on nurses’ unpaid family care work. Unlike when other professionals employ their paid skills and employment resources in an unpaid fashion, nursing unpaid care work is not characteristically valued as “pro bono” (for public good), even when the transfer of skills is similar. Instead, akin to other forms of unpaid family care work, double duty caregiving tends to be invisible work. And yet, approximately 35-40% of nurses over 35 years of age engage in this work, and this figure is expected to increase with an aging population.

In this article, we examine the specific strategies that contribute to the professionalization of care work in familial domain. Additionally, we explore some of the implications of professionalizing family care. In response to this evolving body of work, the research team in collaboration with multiple project collaborators developed a policy brief with explicit recommendations for action. Specifically, the policy brief sets out five recommendations at various levels of policy including 1) employers/health care agencies; 2) health care administrators, human resource managers, researchers, policy makers; 3) employers/health care administrators; 4) national, provincial and territorial professional health associations; and 5) governmental officials, employers, and union representatives.  You can download the DDC Policy Brief here.

We welcome your responses and comments on this article!  Visit the ANS web site to download a copy of this article at no charge, then return here to share your ideas!

Grounded Theory and the Literature Review


The current Editor’s Pick article addresses a methodological issue that remains controversial – the timing of the literature review in the grounded theory method.  This article, titled  “The Timing of the Literature Review in Grounded Theory Research: An Open

Tracey Giles

Tracey Giles

Mind Versus an Empty Head” is authored by Tracey Giles, MNg, MACN, RN; Lindy King PhD, BN, DippAppSc, RN; and Sheryl de Lacey, PhD, MA, BAppSc, RN.  Ms. Giles describes their work, and invites you to respond with your perspectives on this issue:

What an absolute pleasure it is to have our article published in Advances in Nursing Science and featured as the editor’s article of the week on the ANS blog. I am a nursing lecturer and PhD candidate at Flinders University School

of Nursing and Midwifery. The aim of my PhD research is to explore decision making by health care professional and family members around family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in an acute care setting using a constructivist grounded theory method (GTM).

I wrote this article with the support and guidance of my PhD supervisors in response to the often confusing advice I

Lindy King

Lindy King

encountered around the timing of the literature review in GTM research. My initial reading of methodological texts and articles revealed inconsistent and conflicting recommendations, many of which were to delay the literature review until analysis begins, or even until codes begin to emerge. However this advice was not compatible with my constructivist approach to GTM research. A constructivist approach actively repositions the researcher as a co-constructor of experience and meaning and takes into account their past and present perspectives, experiences and knowledge. This often includes an extensive knowledge of the existing literature.

A critical examination of the methodological literature was therefore undertaken in order to clarify and justify my use of the literature, and to offer recommendations to other researchers who are considering GTM as a potential research approach. We found that previous recommendations to delay the literature review are out-dated and that preconceptions are not only unavoidable but can enhance creativity,

Sheryl deLacey

Sheryl deLacey

theoretical sensitivity and rigour. We concluded that any bias that could potentially distort data analysis can be addressed by using correct, GTM transparent techniques and by ensuring the researcher openly acknowledge the influence of previous work in their perspective of what is emerging from their own data. We believe that if used reflexively, a preliminary literature review can enhance GTM research.

Thank you for the opportunity to share our ideas about GTM research. We look forward to your feedback about our recommendations.

Visit the ANS web site now to download your copy  of the article, and contribute your comments and feedback here!

Transition from student to professional: High-Stakes clinical simulation


Clinical simulation has become a standard teaching and learning approach in nursing education. Dr. Mary Ann Cordeau’s article titled “Linking the Transition: A Substantive Theory of High-Stakes Clinical Simulation”  reports the findings of a grounded theory study that reveals a 4-stage transition experienced by students as they learn caring as a professional nurse.  Dr. Cordeau describes her research:
I have been involved in developing clinical simulation as a teaching/learning/assessment strategy at Quinnipiac University for the past seven years. During that time, I have conducted one-on-one simulations, group simulations, and most recently have been involved in streaming scenarios from the laboratory to the classroom. When I began to examine the clinical simulation literature, I learned the majority of the research was quantitative.  There was very little information on the student’s perspective of the clinical simulation experience. My background in history and phenomenology led me to focus on the qualitative aspect of clinical simulation. My initial research examined the lived-experience of high-stakes clinical simulation. The results of that study greatly influenced my approach to using clinical simulation with junior and senior nursing students.  The next logical step in examining clinical simulation was to use grounded theory to reveal the social psychological problem and process used to cope with the problem. At the time I was conducting the grounded theory study, I was teaching Transitions theory to the junior nursing students.  I began to see a connection between Linking and Transitions. Discussing my thoughts with colleagues and expert nurse researchers prompted me to examine Linking as fostering the situational transition from student to professional nurse.
 I would like to thank all of the students who participated in the studies and everyone who advised and supported me on my journey of discovery.
Visit the ANS web site today to download your copy of this very interesting article!
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