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Posts tagged ‘Hannah E. Fraley’

School Nurses Building Healthy Environments


Our current featured article is titled “School Discipline Experiences Among Youth With Disabilities From the Perspective of School Nurses” authored by Hannah E. Fraley, PhD, RN, CNE, CPH; Gordon Capp, PhD, LCSW; and Teri Aronowitz, PhD, APRN, FNP-BC, FAAN. Download this article at no cost while it is featured — we welcome you comments below. Here is a message from Dr. Fraley about this work:

As an early career scientist and scholar, I have been building the science surrounding prevention of

Hannah Fraley

youth violence, particularly trafficking, among youth attending schools in the U.S. A large focus of my work has been on evaluating and building awareness among school nurses   regarding how youth experiencing violence and trafficking present in schools so that school nurses can identify and prevent trafficking, given survivors of trafficking consistently report that they are often misperceived in care interactions as “trouble” and “behavioral”. In these foundational studies, we have identified another common theme brought forward by school nurses- youth with disabilities are particularly misunderstood in schools and it is known in literature that they are a population of youth most at risk for violence. This led my colleagues and I to further explore our qualitative data through secondary analysis exploring the perspectives school nurses have regarding discipline practices in school among youth with disabilities using the Peace and Power Conceptual Model.

Our findings highlight youth with disabilities can experience unjust, harsh disciplinary practices because they are misunderstood and mislabeled, fueled by lack of awareness, and understanding among school faculty. These attitudes shape the power-over dynamics in schools, perpetuating the unjust experiences of youth with disabilities, our most vulnerable youth. Particularly, school nurses in our study have shed light on minority youth with disabilities disproportionately experiencing harsh discipline, including unjust, unwarranted restraints and seclusion, kicked out of classrooms and schools, and sent to residential placements, placing them at higher risk for exposure to violence and the juvenile justice system. School nurses’ perspectives of these youth also often conflicted with other colleagues, creating power-over dynamics, such as being left out of planning teams for youth with disabilities and their input disregarded. Bringing to light the disparate discipline experiences of youth with disabilities in our schools is critical to work towards rebuilding emancipatory school systems that promote social-emotional school-wide programs and restorative justice practices, consistent with peace-power dynamics. Findings from this secondary qualitative data analysis have set the stage for my future study with adults with disabilities exploring their past school discipline experiences. Because people with disabilities are often understudied, hearing directly from people with disabilities themselves about their school discipline experiences will not only serve to inform my future work with school faculty, but will serve to bring their voices and experiences forward.

Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children


The current ANS featured article addresses a hidden, but urgent, threat to the health of children.  The article is titled “School Nurses’ Awareness and Attitudes Toward Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children” authored by Hannah E. Fraley, PhD, RN; Teri Aronowitz, PhD, APRN, FNP-BC, FAAN; and Emily J. Jones, PhD, RNC-OB.  We are offering continuing education credit with this article because this type of challenge is significant for all nurses. This study reveals the key roles that nurses play in protecting the health and well-being of people who are vulnerable and disadvantaged.  The article is available to download at no cost while it is featured, and we invite you to read it, and share your comments here!  Dr. Fraley has shared this information about her work for ANS blog readers!

I am a nurse educator and scholar and am passionate about vulnerable populations, health disparities, health access, and human rights. With an extensive background in working with vulnerable women and children, I have developed a focused research program targeting youth

Hannah Fraley

violence prevention and risk reduction. As I became aware of the nation-wide problem of child sex trafficking I knew that nurses are in such a pivotal position to be able to identify trafficking victims and intervene. Further, in my extensive study of child trafficking in the U.S. I was led to the unique and frontline role specifically of school nurses; school nurses have routine interaction with youth and are often the only health care provider youth interact with. I knew that school nurses can intervene and prevent child sexual exploitation, but also knew from studying the health care provider role that providers may lack awareness of child sex trafficking and also may have negative perceptions about youth who are most vulnerable impeding identification and intervention. Understanding that perceptions that we internally hold are shaped by our own life experiences and also shaped by societal and institutional influences became the backbone of my work with school nurses given youth who are most at risk of sexual exploitation are often those whom society, institutions, ourselves label as ‘difficult to work with’ or ‘trouble’. These children cross their school nurses’ path day in and day out and their exploitation may not be seen or recognized due to low awareness of sex trafficking coupled with shaped perceptions. This has become the driving force of my work aiming to build sustainable programs for school nurses and multidisciplinary school teams targeting prevention of commercial sexual exploitation of children.

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