In our current featured article titled “An Analysis and Evaluation of the Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms,” authors Seung Eun Lee, MSN, RN; Catherine Vincent, PhD, RN and Lorna Finnegan, PhD, RN report the results of their analysis of the Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms, first published in ANS in 1995 (see Lenz et al., 1995 and 1997). This is among the early, and now frequently cited middle-range theories in nursing! In the abstract, Lee and her colleagues described the outcome of their analysis:
Although its semantic clarity, semantic and structural consistency, and parsimony could be improved, the theory demonstrates good social and theoretical significance, testability, and empirical and pragmatic adequacy. Understanding multiple patient symptoms is essential, and the theory demonstrates that nurses should focus on multiplerather than individual symptoms.
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Lenz, E. R., Suppe, F., Gift, A. G., Pugh, L. C., & Milligan, R. A. (1995). Collaborative development of middle-range nursing theories: toward a theory of unpleasant symptoms. ANS. Advances in Nursing Science, 17, 1–13.
Lenz, E. R., Pugh, L. C., Milligan, R. A., Gift, A., & Suppe, F. (1997). The middle-range theory of unpleasant symptoms: an update. ANS. Advances in Nursing Science, 19(3), 14–27.